Diamond Bank Nigeria Plc (DIAMON.ng) listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange under the Banking sector has released it’s 2011 annual report.For more information about Diamond Bank Nigeria Plc (DIAMON.ng) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Diamond Bank Nigeria Plc (DIAMON.ng) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Diamond Bank Nigeria Plc (DIAMON.ng) 2011 annual report.Company ProfileDiamond Bank Nigeria Plc is a financial services institution in Nigeria operating in the treasury, business banking, corporate banking and retail banking sectors. The company offers a full service bank of products and services ranging from transactional accounts, electronic banking and money transfer services to securities dealing and custodian services; personal, automotive and home loans; MSME loans and diamond leasing services and investment and advisory services. Diamond Bank Nigeria Plc also offers, among others, life insurance products; foreign exchange services; cash management services; capital management and trade services; import finance; treasury bills and investment notes and working capital finance and contract financing. The financial institution’s head office is in Lagos, Nigeria. Diamond Bank Nigeria Plc is listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange
RioZim Limited (RIOZ.zw) listed on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange under the Mining sector has released it’s 2012 circular For more information about RioZim Limited (RIOZ.zw) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the RioZim Limited (RIOZ.zw) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: RioZim Limited (RIOZ.zw) 2012 circular Company ProfileRioZim is an integrated mining and metallurgical company in Zimbabwe with an extensive portfolio of resources in gold, base metals, diamonds, coal and chrome. It mining operations include Renco Gold Mine in Masvingo Province, and Cam & Motor Gold Mine and Empress Nickel Refinery; both in the Mashonaland West Province. RioZim also has interests in Sengwa Colliery (Private) Limited with coal assets in Gokwe North; Murowa Diamonds (Private) Limited with operations in Zvishavane; and Marnatha ferrochrome refinery in Kadoma. RioZim separated from its parent company, Rio Tinto plc, in 2004 to become a wholly-owned Zimbabwean company. Its subsidiaries include RioGold (Private) Limited, RioZim Base Metals (Private) Limited and RioDiamonds (Private) Limited. RioZim Group Limited is listed on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange
“I’d love to see Riki Flutey back in the form he showed in 2009. It might also be worth looking at Manu Tuilagi, the young Tiger. Johnson knows what goes on at Leicester and I’m sure he’s speaking to the coaches and when he feels the time is right he’ll give him a chance.“Similarly, there’s been speculation that Leicester No 8 Thomas Waldrom might make England’s World Cup squad after discovering a long-lost English granny. Do I mind the fact that he’s a Kiwi? Rules are rules and they’re not set by people like me.“I do find it strange, however, that whenever England pick a player born overseas it creates a debate, but there’s hardly a mention when the All Blacks or Wallabies cap someone born in the Pacific Isles. And our Celtic cousins aren’t exactly adverse to picking the odd antipodean!“So if Waldrom fits the rules and he’s good enough, then pick him.This article appeared in the June 2011 issue of Rugby World Magazine.Find a newsagent that sells Rugby World in the UK LEICESTER, ENGLAND – OCTOBER 17: Thomas Waldrom of Leicester celebrates on the way to scoring a try during the Heineken Cup match between Leicester Tigers and Scarlets at Welford Road on October 17, 2010 in Leicester, England. (Photo by David Rogers/Getty Images) Future England No 8? Thomas Waldrom should be given a chance says DallaglioFormer England No 8 and captain Lawrence Dallaglio offers his thoughts on the current state of the England team.“I think the 2011 World Cup is a bit too early for this generation of England players and New Zealand will be strong favourites to win the tournament. England have made huge strides in the past 12 months, but to win a World Cup you need to win three big games on the trot and that usually involves beating two of the three Tri-Nations teams.“We probably haven’t got the ability to do that at the moment. Having said that, England shouldn’t be written off. We’ve got a good record in the World Cup, reaching three finals. This England squad still needs to go through a bit more pain before they feel the pleasure.“The Ireland game was a reality check but not a devastating setback the way some have portrayed it. This England side is at the start of its journey and it can’t be compared to the World Cup-winning side of 2003. We were very experienced then but that experience had involved a lot of painful defeats along the way; crucially, however, we learned from every defeat.“Take the loss to Wales at Wembley in 1999 when Scott Gibbs scored a try near the end to give the Welsh the lead. There were still two-and-a-half minutes to play, plenty of time for us to regain the lead, but we panicked.“Contrast that with the World Cup final four years later: Elton Flatley levelled matters with three minutes of extra-time to go, but we stayed calm and worked our way close enough to Australia’s posts for Jonny to drop his goal. That was all down to the experience of previous games.“Talking of Wilkinson, there’s been talk in the wake of the Ireland defeat that he should replace Toby Flood at fly-half. I feel Flood’s come in for a lot of unfair criticism after one bad game. Everyone had a poor match against the Irish and if you’re looking for reasons why England lost then look first at the forwards, who were well beaten. That has to be addressed, as must the mental approach. Ireland had that part of their game spot on and were far more positive from the start.“But it’s good to have Wilkinson and Flood vying for the No 10 jersey, as it is to have healthy competition at scrum-half and in the back row. I’m concerned about the centres and I’m sure this is one area Martin Johnson will be examining in detail. LATEST RUGBY WORLD MAGAZINE SUBSCRIPTION DEALS Or perhaps you’d like a digital version of the magazine delivered direct to your PC, MAC or Ipad? If so click here. For Back Issues Contact John Denton Services at 01733-385-170 visit
CopyAbout this officeSuppose Design OfficeOfficeFollow#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesHousesKamakuraJapanPublished on July 27, 2009Cite: “House in Kitakamakura / Suppose Design Office” 27 Jul 2009. ArchDaily. Accessed 12 Jun 2021.
As the war in Syria enters its apparent end phase, it’s obvious that this country has paid a grim price for U.S. imperialism’s attempt at regime change. By some estimates, over 500,000 Syrians, out of a total population of 17 million, have been killed in fighting since 2011, when armed conflict broke out. Hundreds of thousands more were wounded, many gravely.Some 3 million Syrians have fled to Europe or live mainly in Turkey and Jordan in foreign exile. Other hundreds of thousands are “internally displaced,” forced to flee their homes because of violence and threats but remaining in Syria.Syria’s economy has been devastated. Social relations between various communities have been disrupted and envenomed.The major powers trying to replace Bashar al-Assad and his government — U.S. imperialism and its major European partners, Britain and France — have intervened mainly through proxies, while avoiding sending large numbers of troops. Sometimes, they even funneled money and arms through Qatar, the Emirates and Saudi Arabia. The Turkish regime from the start intervened to try to overthrow the Syrian government and always against Kurdish forces. Israel has bombed Syrian targets.Washington made its largest troop intervention with Special Forces in the mainly Kurdish region of northeastern Syria. The U.S. has collaborated with Kurdish fighters, who have, on the one hand, been fighting Turkish repression and, on the other hand, fighting reactionary religious fighters of the ISIS type. The Turkish regime considers all Kurdish groups that are pro-independence as terrorists and linked to the Kurdish liberation movement inside the Turkish state.Some of these proxy groups that retreated to Idlib have allegiance to the Islamic State (ISIS) and others to al-Qaida. These are groups that Washington calls “terrorists,” although the U.S. provided arms to them before 2014 and still does to some. Some of these forces have grown out of local groups that opposed the Damascus government. These forces not only fought the Syrian government, but they also, from time to time, fought each other.Turkey is the only country that has had significant land troops in the mix, mainly just across its southern border. However, the U.S., France and Britain, as well as Israel, often conducted airstrikes in support of the proxy force they were backing at the time and against the Damascus government.China and Russia gave Syria essential political support in 2011 and 2012 by vetoing United Nations Security Council resolutions that would have provided a cover for a strong military intervention by the U.S. and European imperialist powers. Imperialist intervention could have allowed the jihadis opposed to Damascus — ISIS and al-Qaida — to gain the upper hand, much as happened in Libya in 2011.The Syrian army managed to survive and keep control of the country through the most difficult days of the war. When Russia, Iran and Hezbollah fighters from Lebanon began to assist the Syrians in 2015, the Bashar al-Assad government began recovering the territory it had lost to the reactionary groups.As the Syrian army began to win back areas that had been under reactionary control in the cities of Aleppo and Homs, as well as the suburb of Damascus called East Ghouta and the southern border with Jordan, it would make agreements to limit casualties suffered by civilians and to both sides. A typical deal allowed the fighters who refused to surrender to Syrian control to leave and take their families on a one-way bus trip to Idlib, a province in northwestern Syria.Astana agreement and military pressure on IdlibA series of meetings among belligerents was first held in Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan, in 2017. The Astana goal was to de-escalate the struggle in Syria through exchanging prisoners and bodies, providing services like water and electricity, and reducing violence. These meetings were held between the Syrian opposition and the Syrian government in the presence of observers from Turkey, Russia and Iran — the countries which guaranteed the process. There has been no participation of “Western Powers,” the term Al-Jazeera uses to refer to Washington and its European allies.The opposition fighters still remaining are concentrated in Idlib. Most observers believe that the Syrian government, with aid from Russia and Iran, can regain control of Idlib. Once Damascus reconquers Idlib, most Syrians will be under the protection of the Syrian government.A large area of eastern Syria, mainly desert but containing most of Syria’s known oil reserves, is under the control of Kurdish groups. Some 2,000 U.S. troops are also in that region.In a special U.N. Security Council meeting on Syria held Sept. 7, U.S. Ambassador Nikki Haley fulminated about the “humanitarian crisis” that is threatening to engulf Idlib and “the atrocities committed by Assad.” The representative of the Russian federation said, “Western countries are preparing aggressive plans to prevent the last terrorist-held area from falling.” (U.N. news report for Sept. 7)The U.S., Britain and France also threatened to intervene should Syria use chemical weapons against opposition forces in Idlib. Russian speakers warned of a possible “false-flag” operation to create a pretext for intervention.This U.S. threat to Syria is the height of hypocrisy, especially given the chemical weapons the U.S. dropped in Vietnam and Laos during the Vietnam war, euphemistically known as “defoliants.” They were designed to destroy the croplands and starve the people, as well as destroy the jungles covering troop movements, and are still producing horrible birth defects and genetic damage after 50 years.According to Karin Leukefeld, a journalist for the progressive German daily newspaper Junge Welt, the day after the U.N. meeting, the presidents of Russia, Turkey and Iran met in Tehran in the framework of the Astana accords. She says the presidents felt “a decision should be taken on the extent of a military operation in Idlib and how civilians can be protected.”She adds: “According to reports in the Arab media, a sophisticated military operation plan for Idlib has been drawn up. The aim is to separate troops ready to accept an agreement from al-Qaida-related forces. A humanitarian corridor for civilians wishing to leave the area has already been established. In the province, up to 100,000 armed troops face the decision of whether to accept an agreement with the government or to face military action.” (Junge Welt, Sept. 8)Even the New York Times, in a major editorial on Sept. 9, recognized that Turkey, Russia and Iran have been trying to help Syria come to a political settlement for some time, to achieve a resolution to this conflict. However, the resolution proposed by these countries has been rejected, since it doesn’t conform to the interests of U.S. imperialism.The 2011 imperialist provocation of Syria’s war has led to horrible suffering that remains, even as the end of shooting is in sight. Peace and reconstruction remain complicated and difficult tasks.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare this
BusinessNewsMid-West facilities highlighted at London conferenceBy Staff Reporter – November 15, 2016 724 Proceedures and appointments cancelled again at UHL Advertisement RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR No vaccines in Limerick yet Linkedin Email Walk in Covid testing available in Limerick from Saturday 10th April WhatsApp Surgeries and clinic cancellations extended Twitter Print TAGSfeatured Previous articleLough Derg Canoe Trail to be completed by 2017Next articleKilcornan comes out dancing Staff Reporterhttp://www.limerickpost.ie Shannondoc operating but only by appointment First Irish death from Coronavirus Delia Mertoiu, Institute of Food Science & Technology; HE Dan Mulhall, Irish Ambassador to Britain; Rachel Deegan, Shannon Region Conference & Sports Bureau; and Joyce McElroy, Tourism Ireland, at the business tourism networking event in the Irish Embassy in London.THE EMBASSY of Ireland, in London, was the venue for a recent business tourism networking event – organised by Tourism Ireland and Fáilte Ireland – which was attended by about 50 senior representatives of international associations in Britain.Representatives of the various Irish convention bureaux – including the Shannon Region Conference & Sports Bureau – told guests all about our world-class conference facilities and what makes the Mid-West and Ireland such a special destination.Business tourism is the most lucrative form of tourism, with associations regularly holding conferences for thousands of delegates in different venues around the world, offering significant economic benefits to the host country. Facebook
WhatsApp Twitter NPHET ‘positive’ on easing restrictions – Donnelly Pinterest Twitter Google+ Facebook Pinterest By admin – November 24, 2015 RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR WhatsApp Google+ A 25 year old man is due at a special sitting of Derry Magistrates’ Court today over a £21,000 drugs seizure in the city.Cocaine worth £12,000 and Clephedrone worth £9,000 were seized when police searched a flat in the Waterside in July.The accused has been charged with possession of Class A and Class B proscribed drugs and possession with intent to supply. Facebook GAA decision not sitting well with Donegal – Mick McGrath Calls for maternity restrictions to be lifted at LUH Derry man due in court on drugs charges Previous articlePringle seeks restoration of full jobseekers’ allowance to under 26’sNext articleGerard Doherty signs two year deal at Derry admin Nine Til Noon Show – Listen back to Wednesday’s Programme Three factors driving Donegal housing market – Robinson Homepage BannerNews Guidelines for reopening of hospitality sector published
Matthew Cavanaugh/Getty ImagesBy ARIELLE MITROPOULOS and ELLA TORRES, ABC News(HOLYOKE, Mass.) — An independent investigation into the Soldiers’ Home in Holyoke, Massachusetts, a state-run facility where more than 90 residents died since the coronavirus pandemic began, found that “substantial errors” and “utterly baffling” decisions by the home’s leadership likely contributed to the tragedy.The report on the investigation, however, said the home’s leadership, including suspended Superintendent Bennett Walsh, did not conceal the situation.“Our analysis of the Home’s preparations for and response to COVID-19 in light of existing public health recommendations has identified substantial errors and failures by the Home’s leadership that likely contributed to the death toll during the outbreak,” according to the report, which was released Wednesday and signed by attorney Mark Pearlstein, a former federal prosecutor.“Indeed, some of the critical decisions made by Mr. Walsh and his leadership team during the final two weeks of March 2020 were utterly baffling from an infection-control perspective, and were inconsistent with the Home’s mission to treat its veterans with honor and dignity,” the report added.Ninety-two veterans died at the Soldier’s Home — nearly 40 percent of the population. Seventy-six of those who died had tested positive for COVID-19.The investigation was ordered by Gov. Charlie Baker.The report described leadership’s “most substantial error” as a decision on March 27 to move all the veterans from one locked dementia unit into the other.At that time, each unit had some veterans who had tested positive COVID-19, some of whom were suspected of having the virus and others who were not displaying any symptoms, according to the report.Rather than isolating those with COVID-19 from those who were asymptomatic, more than 40 veterans were “crowded into a space designed to hold 25,” the report stated.“This overcrowding was the opposite of infection control; instead, it put those who were asymptomatic at even greater risk of contracting COVID-19,” according to the report.Staff members who were interviewed for the report spoke of the harrowing situation.A recreational therapist who was instructed to help with the move said she felt like she was “walking [the veterans] to their death” and that the veterans were “terrified.”A social worker said she “felt it was like moving the concentration camp—we [were] moving these unknowing veterans off to die.” Another described the unit as resembling “a war zone,” with some veterans clothed, some unclothed, and some obviously in the process of dying from COVID-19.Other errors at the home included delays in closing common spaces, failure to stop rotation of staff among units, inconsistent policies and practices with respect to personal protective equipment and record keeping and documentation failures.“Even the best preparations and most careful response cannot eliminate the threat of COVID-19. But this does not excuse a failure to plan and execute on long-standing infection control principles and to seek outside help when it is required to keep patients safe—indeed, the extraordinary danger of COVID-19 makes these steps all the more important,” the report said.The report helped answer the long-standing question of what went so tragically wrong inside the home.Employees previously told ABC News that in the early days of the pandemic, staff members were not given face masks. They also said some of the residents were moved to other rooms, leading to overcrowding and possible further spread.Family members said they struggled to reach anyone at the home when the virus appeared to be running rampant at the end of March.One daughter of a veteran at the home, Susan Kenney, told ABC News she waited for days to hear about her own father’s condition after learning of the home’s first COVID-19 case.She said she eventually decided that she would drive down to the home herself. Kenney made sure she would be noticed by staff, so she painted 12 words on the side of her car: “Shame on you, Soldiers’ Home. It’s been 30 hours with no callback.”Kenney’s father eventually did test positive for COVID-19 and died on April 15.An attorney for the suspended superintendent of the Soldiers’ Home, Bennett Walsh, said at a press conference in May that Walsh did not keep anyone “in the dark” about the growing crisis inside.Attorney William Bennett, who is also Walsh’s uncle, repeatedly insisted that Walsh took several steps to notify state and local officials about the growing rate of COVID-19 infections among veterans, but that Walsh’s requests for medical assistance for the facility were denied.Walsh was placed on paid administrative leave on March 30 after state officials visited the facility.The report released Wednesday found that Walsh was “not qualified” to manage a long-term care facility. The report also noted that his “shortcomings were well known to the Department of Veterans’ Services” but the agency failed to effectively oversee the home during his tenure despite a statutory responsibility to do so.There are three other investigations ongoing into the home and its response to the COVID-19 pandemic.Copyright © 2020, ABC Audio. All rights reserved.
Harvard endowment to go greenhouse gas-neutral by 2050 University’s efforts to eliminate carbon footprint extend to investment portfolio Denis Hayes, one of the event’s founders, recalls the first and how its influence spread To mark Earth Day’s 50th anniversary, amid the coronavirus pandemic, the Gazette contacted experts on climate change, the environment, and sustainability to ask them about their global-warming fears. Here are their answers. New committee to advise Bacow on sustainability goals Courtesy of Thomas P. GloriaThomas P. GloriaProgram Director, Sustainability, Harvard Extension SchoolThis question presupposes that I am scared about climate change. How dare you ask such a question to a career sustainability professional? Being scared is being afraid, terrified, and at worst, emotional to the point of being catatonic. I demand, no, I respectfully deserve a better question, a positive, uplifting question, especially on the 50th anniversary of Earth Day …I am scared, deeply. We are in a climate crisis.My Rachel Carson moment of being present to the enormity of the challenges that come with global climate disruption happened when I was a doctoral student at Tufts just starting my background literature search. It was 1994, and Nature just published a journal article by [James E.] Lovelock and [Lee R.] Kump (1994). When disruption occurs, it comes with accelerating forces due to failures of climate regulation, unleashing reinforcing feedbacks that further amplify increases in global temperatures.My fear is, despite the science and the early warning signals that we bear witness to — record temperatures, 1,000-year storms, glacial retreat, coral reefs dying on a continental scale — global society may finally wake up, but it may be too late. Our current global political economy solves problems through business as usual growth, wasting precious time to effectively reduce emissions to prevent human suffering and ecological system collapse at an unimaginable scale.I may not live long enough to experience the severe effects of climate change. However, when I look around the Harvard community, a truly global community, I see a growing younger generation of people who will experience severe impacts. They get it. They don’t need to be told (again) how bad it’s going to get. They know.So I respectfully pivot to the question posed and answer this question: “What about climate change brings me hope?”Sustainable development is most frequently defined as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” This tried and true quote from the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future, a.k.a. the Brundtland Report of 1987, is truncated. In Section 3, subparagraph 27, the definition begins with “Humanity has the ability to make development …”Humanity, the human collective, has the ability to take control of the physical world it disrupts with an alacrity just like the natural world’s reinforcing feedbacks loops, but in a good way. With courage, leadership, and a moral compass to make the world a better place, together, the Harvard community has the ability to make a difference on a global scale that will inspire others to also make a positive difference. And this gives me hope.Kris Snibbe/Harvard file photoAaron BernsteinInterim Director of the Center for Climate, Health, and the Global Environment at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (Harvard C-CHANGE)Climate change doesn’t scare me, and it need not scare anyone. To combat fear that grows from inaction and inadequate leadership, we must remind ourselves time and again that we have solutions to the climate crisis and that these solutions improve health today, especially for the poor and vulnerable, and that they provide for a more just and livable world for our children.While much, much more needs to be done to put us on the right path to avert the worst effects of climate change, the growth of renewable energy around the world, the rise of electric vehicles, and the growing appreciation for plant-based diets all give reason for hope over fear.When it comes to climate actions, it’s all too easy to believe that what we do as individuals doesn’t matter. How could one person’s deeds make even a tiny dent in the scope of global greenhouse gas emissions? For anyone who doubts our individual actions matter, look no further than what is happening in communities across this country right now. By keeping our distance from others, we have saved tens of thousands of lives, especially among the poor, older people, and those whose health is compromised. With COVID-19, of course, we have been asked (and in some cases commanded) to change our ways by our leaders. But a prevailing sense of responsibility to and pressure from our families and communities has led to more people doing what’s needed.Our individual climate actions can have the same effect. As individuals act, we can create a path that many more will walk on. The good news about climate actions is that as they make the planet healthier, they also make us healthier, helping to solve problems like obesity and mental health disorders, which have exacted a huge toll on so many people.Fifty years ago, a small group of people organized many more to protect the world we live on. Their motivation came from a recognition that a polluted world was unviable not just for all the other life forms we share the planet with, but for ourselves. Their example and motivation matter today more than ever. We must act to protect the earth, its climate, and all the life we share it with because our lives, and the lives of generations to come, depend on it.Stephanie Mitchell/Harvard file photoJohn P. HoldrenTeresa and John Heinz Professor of Environmental Policy at the Kennedy School of Government; professor of environmental science and policy, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences; affiliated professor, Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied SciencesThe disruption of Earth’s climate by human activities scares me for many reasons. Here are three. First, climate is the envelope within which all other environmental conditions and processes important to human well-being must function. Those conditions and processes include those that govern the quality of air, the quality and quantity of fresh water, the fertility of soil, the productivity of the ocean, and natural controls on pests and pathogens. As our activities increasingly alter the climate — with direct impacts including hotter heat waves, stronger storms, bigger floods, larger wildfires, and inexorably rising sea level — we imperil all the essential environmental conditions and processes that function within the climatic envelope.Second, the human activities driving the disruption of global climate are so deeply embedded in the economies of developed and developing countries alike that it is impossible to change the drivers rapidly. The biggest driver is the combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas — the fossil fuels — using technologies that discharge all of the resulting carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. In 2020, about 80 percent of the energy used by civilization worldwide still comes from these fossil fuels. It will take decades to free ourselves from them. The next biggest driver is land use and land-use change, including deforestation and many agricultural practices. These, too, in turn, are on such a large scale and driven by such fundamental forces in the world’s economies that they are very difficult to change quickly.Third, impacts of global climate change are already causing serious damage to human health and safety, property, infrastructure, and terrestrial and marine ecosystems, even though the increase in the annually and globally averaged surface temperature has been “only” about 2 degrees Fahrenheit. At this point, because of the intractable nature of the drivers described above, it seems almost impossible to avoid an increase twice as large, which will result in a much more than proportional increase in the damages now being experienced.The only good news is that public awareness of the ongoing harm and increasing danger is growing to the point that countries may finally undertake the remedial actions needed to avoid even bigger changes in our future climate, along with adaptation measures that can reduce the harm from the changes we cannot avoid.Tyler Giannini with daughters Rayna (left) and Amaya. Courtesy of Tyler GianniniTyler GianniniClinical professor of law, co-director of the International Human Rights Clinic at Harvard Law School, and founder of EarthRights International, an NGO that works to protect human rights and the environmentGiannini wrote his essay with his daughters Amaya Giannini (14 years old) and Rayna Giannini (10).This is an intergenerational question, so the three of us sat around our dining room table and each made individual lists of how climate change scared us. Together, we represent one Generation Xer (aged 49) and two Generation Zs (aged 14 and 10) — also known as Zoomers. While our generations think differently on a lot of issues, what stood out most is that we have similar fears about climate change. We worry about the loss of ecosystems and about biodiversity. We worry about the future of humanity and our families, and we worry about how the world will react to the impending crisis. Will we come together or lose our empathy for one another? As the three of us started talking about our fears, though, we kept coming back to solutions — to listen to science, of course, but just as importantly to come together because tackling climate change requires seeing the connections between us rather than what divides us.On all our lists, we hit on how we were scared of losing animals and hurting the planet itself. Climate change affects our ecosystems, and this will impact the lives of many animals. Some may even become extinct. But we also thought about how we are connected to our environment: Animals are a big part of our food chain, for example, and bees are critical pollinators, and if we lose them, it will affect our food supplies.The theme of connection also played out as we talked about how climate change will deeply affect humanity. We fear for the unprecedented millions who will be displaced — the impending flow of climate refugees. We worry about our families, our kids, but we talked about how every displaced person is connected to a family. And we also know that it is much more likely that these families will be disproportionately poor and people of color, especially in the Global South.We also worry about the emotional toll that climate change will take as we absorb a constant barrage of bad news — and how people will react once the impacts become even more serious than they already are. You can see how in the beginning of the coronavirus pandemic, many thought it was far away and would not reach them. But there was a tipping point, and then it started to directly affect so many more people. This is where we are headed with climate change. Once we start treating climate change like the crisis it is, we hope many people will launch into action.As we stay at home these days, we keep returning to parallels between climate change and the current pandemic. The curves look eerily similar. And there is a lingering question of whether we will hit the steep part of the curve or flatten the curve. For climate change, we fear hitting the tipping point and want to get ahead of it while we have time. In the end though, the three of us are most scared about what it will take to find solutions. It will take government action, individual action, and community action. Like the pandemic, we know it will take scientific knowledge and empathy and hope. We see the pandemic pulling us in two directions — increasing isolation and fears, but also creating innumerable acts of coming together and working to overcome the challenges. Solving the problem of climate change will not be successful if we allow our fears to overcome us. Solving the problem will require the strength, commitment, and creativity of our global community.Jon Chase/Harvard file photoRobert N. StavinsA.J. Meyer Professor of Energy and Economic Development, Harvard Kennedy School of GovernmentWhat concerns me most about climate change is the combination of a pair of its characteristics — one spatial and one temporal — that together make this an exceptionally difficult political challenge. Each of these characteristics takes us from the science of climate change to its economic realities and then to its very difficult politics.First, greenhouse gases mix in the atmosphere, so the location of emissions has no effect on impacts — in economic terms, climate change is a global commons problem. It does not matter whether a ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions emanate from Cambridge, Mass., or Cairo, Egypt. They have the same impacts, and those impacts are spread globally.However, any jurisdiction taking action incurs the costs of its actions (typically the costs of moving from reliance on fossil fuels to greater use of renewable energy resources, as well as increased energy efficiency), but the climate benefits of its actions are distributed globally. Thus, for virtually any jurisdiction, the climate benefits it reaps from its actions will be less than the costs it incurs (despite the fact that the global benefits may be greater — possibly much greater — than the global costs). This presents a classic free-rider problem, wherein it is in the interests of each country to do little and instead seek to rely on the actions of other countries. And this is why it cannot be left to individual countries to develop policies completely independently. Rather, international, if not global, cooperation is essential.There is also a temporal dimension that takes us from science to economics to politics and policy. Greenhouse gases (GHGs) accumulate in the atmosphere (CO2 has a half-life in the atmosphere exceeding 100 years), and the damages are a function of the stock, not the flow of GHGs. Hence, the most severe consequences of climate change will be in the long term. But climate-change policies and the attendant costs of mitigation will be up front. This combination of up-front costs and delayed benefits presents a tremendous political challenge, since political incentives in democracies are typically for elected officials to convey benefits to current voters today, and place costs on future generations. The climate problem asks politicians to do precisely the opposite!Together, the global commons nature of the problem plus this intertemporal asymmetry make climate change an exceptionally tough political challenge (and suggest why economics can help with the design of better public policies). How Earth Day gave birth to environmental movement The Daily Gazette Sign up for daily emails to get the latest Harvard news. Members see pressing need to act now on climate change Related