Commemorating the ‘Great War,’ America’s forgotten conflict

first_img Please enter your name here The Anatomy of Fear Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply Support conservation and fish with NEW Florida specialty license plate Free webinar for job seekers on best interview answers, hosted by Goodwill June 11 You have entered an incorrect email address! Please enter your email address here TAGStheconversation.comWorld War I Previous articleThe twin evils of lying and gossipNext articleOn this day in history: World War I ends Denise Connell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR By G. Kurt Piehler, Associate Professor of History, Florida State University. This article first published on theconversation.com.World War I was still a living memory for most Americans when I was growing up in the 1960s and early 1970s.Aging doughboys who had fought on the Western Front in 1917 and 1918 still marched on Veterans Day. These World War I enlisted men often referred to this holiday by its original name, Armistice Day.My mother invariably bought and wore an artificial red poppy on Veterans Day. I learned much later the poppy signified the blood and sacrifice of those who died on Flanders Field, a Belgian battle site that was the subject of the war’s most famous poem.With the 100th anniversary of the end of the First World War on Nov. 11, 2018, as a scholar who has spent my career studying war in 20th century America, I am struck by the degree to which World War I has faded from popular memory.Few Americans can name a single battle from this conflict. Heroes such as “Ace of Aces” fighter pilot Eddie Rickenbacker and “the greatest civilian soldier of the war,” Alvin York are no longer household names.Even fewer Americans remember the distinguished record of the Harlem Hell Fighters and other black regiments attached to the French army.The fact that World War I is the forgotten war for Americans serves as a cautionary tale that some important memories can fade despite sustained efforts to foster them.On Nov. 11, 1921, the official first unknown soldier is buried in this tomb in Arlington National Cemetery. U.S. ArmyMemorials proliferatedWorld War I broke out in Europe in 1914, eventually pitting Germany, the Austro-Hungarian empire, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria against Belgium, France and its empire, Great Britain and its Empire, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Russia, Serbia, Romania, Italy, Japan, China, Portugal and a number of smaller nations.The U.S. was officially neutral at the beginning of the war. Most Americans saw no compelling argument to send American troops to fight Europe’s war abroad. Late in the war, and only after a divisive debate and German submarine attacks that caused the death of Americans, did the United States enter the conflict in 1917.The United States’ entry into the war ensured the European balance of war and avoided German dominance on the continent. The victory achieved on Nov. 11, 1918 at 11:00 a.m. would be commemorated by Americans as the “war to end all wars.”In its aftermath, the war was publicly acknowledged in a variety of ways. The generation that went to war in 1917 transmitted its memory through the thousands of memorials they built, the Memorial Day holiday, and in their memoirs of war as a glorious endeavor.Under the auspices of the American Battle Monuments Commission, they established overseas national cemeteries for the war’s dead and erected monuments in France and the United Kingdom.They created a new way of mourning the war dead with the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, where the unidentified dead received a state funeral and burial at Arlington National Cemetery.Indeed, World War I marked the first time that many countries systematically created gravesfor all soldiers, whether they could be identified or not.And in Paris in 1919, American veterans of World War I founded the American Legion, which is still the nation’s largest veterans organization.Flanders Field American Cemetery and Memorial, in Waregem, Belgium, where 411 American soldiers who died in WWI are buried. Library of CongressBitter debatesWhat has been lost along with the memory of the war is the memory of the bitter debates that engulfed the United States in the decades after the war, the 1920s and 1930s. When researching my dissertation and first book, Remembering War the American Way, I was stunned by how virtually every aspect of commemorating the war engendered debate during the interwar period.For instance, the decision to build overseas cemeteries for the war dead faced challenges from parents of many of the fallen who wanted to bury their sons in hometown cemeteries. In the end, the federal government retreated from keeping all the war dead in cemeteries abroad and allowed families to decide whether a doughboy who died for his country would be buried at home or in one of the overseas cemeteries.During my eighth grade class trip to Arlington National Cemetery to visit the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in 1974, I remember how impressed we were at the spit and polish of the ceremony marking the changing of the guard. In fact, the origins of this ceremony and even the need for a guard in the first place stems from complaints of the American Legion in the 1920s that tourists were picnicking on the unfinished tomb and, even worse, that juvenile delinquents were playing games on them.Memorials and divisionThose who build memorials are often implicitly aiming to accomplish something other than memorializing.In the case of World War I, the memorials were intended to heal and mask regional, ethnic and ideological divisions. For instance, the Unknown Soldier was hailed as an everyman because he could be rich and poor, native born or foreign born, a city dweller or a farmer.The paradox of these efforts to forge memories in stone, marble, and copper is that memorials are often overshadowed by the controversies they are intended to heal.Although memorials to World War I proclaimed that Americans had fought a “war to end all wars,” the post-war world remained perilous. Many elements contributed to the growing danger: A return of American isolationism, the war debt owed to the U.S. by European allies, the crushing of “Prussian militarism” that led to the birth of communist Russia and the fascism that took hold of Italy in the early 1920s.Memorials sought to display the unity of all Americans, but the terrible legacy of World War I was the fear it engendered. During the war, German Americans were persecuted by vigilantes because of their ancestry. Despite the patriotic service of scores of new Americans from southern and eastern Europe, the U.S. Congress passed legislation restricting immigration of what were deemed undesirable immigrants from these regions.Why have Americans forgotten World War I?Perhaps the answer is that World War II reshaped the memory of the First World War. The fact that another world war broke out in less than a generation discredited the notion that World War I was a “war to end all wars.” As World War I faded into oblivion, it became easier to simply forget all the deep divisions engendered by this war for the more comforting narrative of World War II as the “good war”.Gabriela Baláž Maduro contributed to this story. Please enter your comment! Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.last_img read more

USA: Electric Boat Corp Pens 121.8 Million Submarines Contract

first_img December 24, 2013 View post tag: Boat Equipment & technology View post tag: Submarines VIRGINIA CLASS SUBMARINE SSN-774Electric Boat Corp., based in Groton, Conn., has received a 121.84 million contract for additional long lead time material associated with the second fiscal 2014 Virginia-class submarine (SSN 793) and the two fiscal 2015 Virginia-class submarines (SSN 774 and SSN 795).The contract stipulates provision of additional long lead time material for steam and electric plant components, the main propulsion unit efforts and ship service turbine generator efforts, steel and miscellaneous hull, mechanical and electrical system components.The work is expected to be completed by September 2014.[mappress]Naval Today Staff, December 24, 2013; Image: Wikimedia View post tag: 121.8 View post tag: Pens View post tag: million View post tag: Corp Back to overview,Home naval-today USA: Electric Boat Corp Pens 121.8 Million Submarines Contract View post tag: contract USA: Electric Boat Corp Pens 121.8 Million Submarines Contract Share this articlelast_img read more

UN chief: UN will seek to unite world, reverse Myanmar coup

first_imgUNITED NATIONS (AP) — The U.N. chief is pledging that the United Nations will do everything it can to unite the international community and create conditions for the military coup in Myanmar to be reversed. Secretary-General Antonio Guterres told a news conference Friday it is absolutely essential to carry out the U.N. Security Council’s calls for a return to democracy, respect for the results of November elections, and release of all people detained by the military, which he says means the reversal of the coup. He says that requires all possible areas of pressure to make it happen. He says Christine Schraner Burgener, the U.N. special envoy for Myanmar, had a first contact Friday with the military since the coup and expressed the U.N.’s strong opposition to the takeover.last_img

Olivier Giroud basically tells Maurizio Sarri why he should start instead of Gonzalo Higuiain against Liverpool

first_img Metro Sport ReporterSaturday 13 Apr 2019 11:23 amShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link670Shares Advertisement Olivier Giroud got the better of Virgil van Dijk in a recent international friendly (Picture: Getty)Speaking about the prospect of facing Van Dijk again, Giroud said: ‘I played against him personally a few times and it has always been a tough position because he is very good and very strong, but I’ve scored a few goals playing against his teams.‘I played against him in the Netherlands when we played recently but I won last year and scored at Stamford Bridge and scored the winner at the Stade de France against the Netherlands a few months ago.‘We don’t have to be scared and no matter who plays we will be 100% focused on winning the game.’More: Arsenal FCArsenal flop Denis Suarez delivers verdict on Thomas Partey and Lucas Torreira movesThomas Partey debut? Ian Wright picks his Arsenal starting XI vs Manchester CityArsene Wenger explains why Mikel Arteta is ‘lucky’ to be managing Arsenal Comment Olivier Giroud basically tells Maurizio Sarri why he should start instead of Gonzalo Higuiain against Liverpool Olivier Giroud has been forced to play second fiddle to Gonzalo Higuain (Picture: Getty)Olivier Giroud insists he is not intimidated by the prospect of facing Virgil van Dijk when Chelsea look to derail Liverpool’s title bid at Anfield on Sunday.The former Southampton centre-half has emerged as the outstanding candidate to be crowned PFA Footballer of the Year having helped turn Liverpool’s once porous defence into the meanest in the Premier League.Giroud, meanwhile, has been forced to play second fiddle to January recruit Gonzalo Higuain since his January loan move from AC Milan but the Argentine has scored in just two of his 12 games so far.The former Arsenal striker has impressed during the Europa League campaign, however, and produced another effective display in Thursday’s 1-0 win over Slavia Prague. Giroud scored the winning goal when Chelsea met Liverpool at the back end of last season and also got the better of Van Dijk in a recent international friendly.AdvertisementAdvertisementADVERTISEMENTMore: FootballRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starChelsea defender Fikayo Tomori reveals why he made U-turn over transfer deadline day moveMikel Arteta rates Thomas Partey’s chances of making his Arsenal debut vs Man City Klopp condemns racist abuse of SalahTo view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 video Play VideoLoaded: 0%0:00Progress: 0%PlayMuteCurrent Time 0:00/Duration Time 0:55FullscreenKlopp condemns racist abuse of Salahhttps://metro.co.uk/video/klopp-condemns-racist-abuse-salah-1904304/This is a modal window.Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window.TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal DialogEnd of dialog window. Advertisementlast_img read more

Damen Works on Dredging Installation for New CEMEX Dredger

first_imgTransport of both overflows to be delivered to the building yard Damen Shipyards Mangalia, RomaniaDamen Dredging Equipment is busy working on the dredging installation for the marine aggregate dredger for CEMEX. The impressive £30 million dredger, type MAD3500, is designed to extract sand and gravel from the sea bed at depths of up to -55 meters, including in the challenging conditions of the North Sea.The dredger will have a radical and innovative design which will bring new standards of environmental performance and cost efficiency, not only to the CEMEX marine fleet but will set a high standard for the rest of the industry.During the keel-laying ceremony in October 2018, Kurt Cowdery, Director CEMEX Marine Aggregates, said: “This is a fantastic investment for the future, allowing us to safely source the materials that we need and enabling us to develop and grow in the UK & Europe.”The delivery is scheduled for the late 2019.last_img read more

Chekwel to open Uganda’s account on the Rio track at 5pm

first_img GoldJohn Akii-Bua 1972 Munich AthleticsMen’s 400 metre hurdles MedalNameGamesSportEvent Share on: WhatsApp  SilverEridadi Mukwanga 1968 Mexico City BoxingMen’s bantamweight  BronzeLeo Rwabwogo 1968 Mexico City BoxingMen’s flyweight  BronzeDavis Kamoga 1996 Atlanta AthleticsMen’s 400 metres  SilverJohn Mugabi 1980 Moscow BoxingMen’s welterweightcenter_img Sunday August 14Women’s marathon final 3.30pmNyakisi AderoMonday August 15 Men’s 3000m steeplechase round 1 – 4.25pmBenjamin Kiplagat and Jacob Araptany***Women 3000m Steeplechase final 5.15pmTuesday August 16 Women’s 5000m round 1 – 3.30pmJuliet Chekwel and Stella ChesangMen’s 1500m round 1 – 4-30pmRonald MusagalaWed August 17 Men’s 5000m round 1 – 4.05pmJacob Kiplimo, Phillip Kipyego and Joshua Kiprui CheptegeiWomen’s 800m round 1 – 4.55pmHalimah Nakaayi and Winnie NanyondoMen’s Steeplechase finalThursday August 18 Men’s 1500m semifinalWomen 800m semifinalFriday August 19 Women’s 5000m finalSaturday August 20 Men’s 1500m finalWomen’s 800m finalMen’s 5000m final 3.30pmJacob Kiplimo, Phillip Kipyego and Joshua Kiprui CheptegeiSunday August 21 Men’s Marathon final 3.30pmSolomon Mutai, Jackson Kiprop and Stephen Kiprotich Rest of team Uganda’s ScheduleFriday August 12Athletics 5pmJuliet Chekwel – Women’s 10000m final Saturday August 13Boxing 11.45pmMen’s flyweight  Round of 32Ronald Serugo vs  Narek Abgaryan (Armenia)Saturday August 13Athletics 4pmWomen’s 3000m Steeplechase Heat 1Peruth Chemutai10000m men final (3.00am Sunday Uganda time)Timothy Toroitich, Moses Kurong and Joshua Kiprui Cheptegei  GoldStephen Kiprotich 2012 London AthleticsMen’s marathon TodayAthletics 5pmJuliet Chekwel – Women’s 10000m final Saturday August 13Boxing 11.45pmMen’s flyweight  Round of 32Ronald Serugo vs  Narek Abgaryan (Armenia)Saturday August 13Athletics 4pmWomen’s 3000m Steeplechase Heat 1Peruth Chemutai10000m men final (3.00am Sunday Uganda time)Timothy Toroitich, Moses Kurong and Joshua Kiprui CheptegeiJuliet Chekwel will open Uganda’s account on the track today, with her performance key to setting the tone for 16 of her colleagues.At 26, Chekwel can be considered one of the seniors in a team that also has a 15-year-old Jacob Kiplimo, a 17 year old Peruth Chemutai and a 19-year-old Joshua CheptegeiShe owns the national record, having set 32:57.02 at the World Championships  in Moscow 2013 in finishing 16th,   32:20.95 at the World Championships in Beijing in 17th and 31:37.99 in April.Looking at the field, dominated by Kenyans and Ethiopians with the best times of the year, Chekwel will have to run better than she has run before – that is lower than 31 minutes tonight to fight for a medal. Favourite for the race is Ethiopian Almaz Ayana who has a best time this year of 30:07.00.Chekwel becomes the 4th Ugandan in action in Rio, with light-heavy weight boxer Kennedy Katende and swimmers Jamila Lunkuse and Joshua Ekirikubinza Tibatemwa failing to go past the first hurdle.Uganda sent a team of 2 swimmers, 2 boxers and 17 athletes. It is the track athletes who have Uganda’s best hopes of a medal.No Ugandan woman has won an Olympic medal before.List of medalists  SilverLeo Rwabwogo 1972 Munich BoxingMen’s flyweightlast_img read more